Babies are born with clubfoot, when their feet are turned inwards instead of straight. With treatment they will be able to walk and run as normal. Without treatment, walking will be very difficult and painful.
Treatment for clubfoot starts without surgery. Babies are placed into specially designed casts, splints, or braces, or their feet stretched and then taped into place, that keep their feet in the correct position. Treatment continues for the first few years of their life.
Most babies will also require a very small cut in their Achilles tendon to allow it to stretch to the required length so their foot will be able to stay straight.
If the non-surgical methods don't work well enough surgery may need to be performed.
Flatfoot is the condition of not having an arch in the foot when standing up. The arch might be present when sitting or on tiptoes.
Many children have flatfoot and naturally grow out of it. If they are not in any pain, nothing needs to be done. If they are in pain, shoe inserts may help.
Other people may develop flatfoot as an adult. In this case, the flatfoot is caused by another condition, such as rheumatoid arthritis, Charcot foot caused by diabetes, or an injury to the ligaments in the middle of the foot.
Non-surgical treatment includes wearing a cast or boot and not putting weight on the foot. Surgical treatment may be needed.